Gerhard Richter AP1

Abstraktes Bild (2000)
Abstraktes Bild (2000)

In 1976, Richter first gave the title Abstract Painting to one of his works. By presenting a painting without even a few words to name and explain it, he felt he was “letting a thing come, rather than creating it.” In his abstract pictures, Richter builds up cumulative layers of non-representational painting, beginning with brushing big swaths of primary colour onto canvas. The paintings evolve in stages, based on his responses to the picture’s progress: the incidental details and patterns that emerge. Throughout his process, Richter uses the same techniques he uses in his representational paintings, blurring and scraping to veil and expose prior layers. From the mid-1980s, Richter began to use a homemade squeegee to rub and scrape the paint that he had applied in large bands across his canvases.

Abstraktes Bild (2000)
Abstraktes Bild (2000)
Abstraktes Bild (2000)
Abstraktes Bild (2000)
Abstraktes Bild (2000)

My research into Richer’s abstract practice goes back several years, mainly focusing on his use and application of thick and heavy pigments. At each stage of the development of my practice, I have revisited Richter’s method of material manipulation, each time noticing and realising new elements to take forward. At this moment, I considered and focused directly on the application of the paint to a surface; mainly how the paint reacts on the underside of the surface.

Abstraktes Bild (1999)
Bagdad (2010)
St John (1988)
Cage (1) – (6) (2006)
Cage (1) – (6) (2006)
Test Swatches in Studio

Throughout this exploration phase, I tested out using oil paint (Richter’s medium) on a variety of surfaces: paper, canvas and glossed tile. The paint onto the tile created an interesting dynamic, a flat and in-permeable surface that allowed the paint to sit directly on top of, not allowing it to soak in. This made me consider other more transparent materials to consider working with: acetate, glass and perspex.

Test Work in Studio (Oil on Canvas)
Test Work in Studio (Oil on Canvas)
Test Work in Studio (Oil on Canvas)
Test Work in Studio (Oil on Canvas)
Test Swatches
Acrylic and Oil on Acetate
Oil on Glass

Yago Hortal AP1

SP 75. (2012)

Yago Hortal is a contemporary Spanish painter known for his vibrant paintings inspired by Abstract Expressionism. Born in Barcelona, Spain in 1983, Hortal has said: “I look for a balance between chaos and order, something like a combination between a chess game and a boxing match.” He manipulates the surface of his works by marbling, splattering, and smearing thick, fluorescent acrylic paint in an urgent, spontaneous manner. His paintings have an internal logic, in a similar manner to American artist Tomory Dodge. Having exhibited at Rooster Gallery in New York, Egbert Baque Cotnemporary Art in Berlin, and Espacio Atlantico in Vigo, among others

SP48. (2012)
SP124. (2016)
SP211. (2016)
SP120. (2016)

The color is the main protagonist of the painting that presents Hortal Iago at the beginning of the year in the gallery Senda. Vigorous strokes added to the use of saturated tones show a suggestive visual impact which have great harmony and boldness, multiple shades of color. The forms and combinations of this wide range span across the fabric, a process that culminates in the spread of the paint off the canvas, bursting into the architectural space. Thus, Hortal uses color as a vehicle to convey vitality and impetus to use pictorial masses contributing to the work severe expressive value, with a sculpture or relief.

The execution of the work gives the artist the ability to establish a relationship between chaos and control. This link is manifested by a directed to a natural ease contained, which encompass the clutter correspondence between the elements and the visual coherence of the composition. Use a variety of random shapes, waving and paintings jets to drive the route of looking around the canvas and provide a sense of movement to the representation. The transmission, as accurate, gestures to the fabric, and perceptible evidence of the working method of execution attributes are neat, in an abstract way to express that combines spontaneity with the rational through a formal vocabulary covered suggestive in a large domain of pictorial resources.

SP123. (2016)
ARCO Madrid’19
Galería Senda (Booth 9 F08)

The exhibition ‘H-H. Halley meets Hortal’ has come together after eight months of conversations, e-mail exchanges, and the cross-posting of ideas, studies, and drafts in which both artists responded to each other’s practice.

This led to conversations about things they have in common — and others that differentiate them — inside the world of abstract painting. It highlights the New Yorker and the Catalan, experience and youth, rationalism and randomness, geometry and gesture, two approaches to the mastery of color… a back and forth dialogue about what unites them and what distances them.

At Senda, each artist will exhibit three large paintings, conceived of with the goal of establishing a conversation. In addition, Peter Halley and Yago Hortal have created five collaborative works on paper, signed by both artists.

SP126. (2016)
SP104. (2016)

David Spriggs AP1

The artwork of David Spriggs lies in a space between the 2 and 3 dimensions. In his work he explores phenomena, space-time and movement, colour, visual systems and surveillance, the strategies and symbols of power, and the thresholds of form and perception. Spriggs is known internationally for his unique large-scale 3D ephemeral-like installations that use a technique he pioneered in 1999 layering transparent images.

Red Pepper Study by David Spriggs (1999)
Paradox of Power by David Spriggs

David Spriggs’ large-scale sculptural installation, The Paradox of Power, is an investigation of rapid change, deconstruction and symbolic revolution. In the same vain as the Futurists, Spriggs is interested in the representation of time and motion in the sculptural form. Using layering as a device, Spriggs has developed “an environment that breaks free from the laws that constrict both two and three-dimensional materials, bringing together painting, drawing, photography, digital-modeling, and sculpture, to create a spatial topographic system”… Spriggs has installed of a life-size model of a stratified bull, cut in two, with each end displayed in two adjacent cases, each a sublime eight feet high and ten feet wide. Spriggs’ investigation of the multiplicity of time and its relationship to the sculptural form is here transcribed in his an analysis of the bull as a semiotic agent. By literally deconstructing the bull through a layering of transparent stratum, the mythologized ‘power’ the bull represents is “fragmented, and reconstructed in an alternate reality.”The bull is rendered immobile, flipped upside down, legs in the air. The form is further transformed in the plastic anaglyphic binary colours of each half — a paradox of red and blue. This binary references not only the deconstructive possibilities of vision itself, but also an antithesis of power in the corporeality of the bull contained, divided and sacrificially immobilized.. Like Muybridge’s running horse, Spriggs uses the representation of serialized time to suggest a paradoxical ordering of symbolic power.

Paradox of Power by David Spriggs
Perpetual Motion by David Spriggs (2009)
Emergence of Perception by David Spriggs (2009)
Emergence of Perception by David Spriggs (2009)

Spriggs’ work invites us to see-with what is not actually there and to move-with the constellation of what we’re beginning to see. Moving-with perception composing itself, we experience the dynamics of an object becoming spacetime. We no longer simply observe – we are moved by the experience of watching, and we move with it. We note the contours but feel the colors. We see the lines but feel the rhythm. We see-with the becoming-work. This is the activity of plastic dynamism expressing itself through the emergence of a body-image constellation.

Emergence of Perception by David Spriggs (2009)
4 Colour Separation by David Spriggs

Suspended in a cross formation are four illuminated plexi vessels, each containing a nebulous cube of one of the four subtractive primaries used in the CMYK process. The hazy cubical forms reference visual culture constructions such as the screen and the hologram, while simultaneously dialoguing with monochromatic painting of the 20th Century. Spriggs has built an artistic practice characterized by a desire to transcend the limitations of “flat” media in re-creating three-dimensional space. The particular social, political, and technological connotations attached to individual colours, and by extension, the tradition of the monochrome loom large in Spriggs’ chroma-centric practice. The artist, however, prefers to describe his works as “stratachromes.” This formal designation captures the layered process that gives literal dimension to Spriggs’ hovering, soft-edge, monochromatic “Spatial Image Sculptures.”

4 Colour Separation is the latest instalment in a collection of works that exhibit a longstanding engagement with the mechanics of perception. While the exploration of optics is a persistent feature of Spriggs’ practice, one must not overlook the haptic and corporeal dimensions of the artist’s work. Much like its large scale and immersive predecessor, Stratachrome, 4 Colour Separation creates a ground to be navigated. The substantial dimensional presence of these Spatial Image Sculptures implicates our bodies in the viewing experience and speaks to the dynamic nature of perception itself. The constantly shifting play of light and chromatic intensity as one moves around the work imbues these stratachromes with tremendous vitality and a special power to split a single ubiquitous printing process into multiple poignant embodied experiences. Like Stanley Kubrick’s monolith in 2001 A Space Odyssey, Spriggs’ enigmatic stratachromes create perceptual encounters that demand full survey and are defined by perplexity, reverence, and utter enchantment.

4 Colour Separation by David Spriggs
4 Colour Separation by David Spriggs

Virtual Art (From Illusion to Immersion) S

  • Virtual art has integrated itself into the everyday, the way images are now produced as well as the integration of both skepticism and utopianism.
  • With the advent of new techniques for generating, distributing, and presenting images, the computer has transformed the image and now suggests that it is possible to ‘enter’ it.
  • The panorama demands a special consideration: this illusion space represented the highest developed from of illusionism and suggestive power of the problematical variety that used traditional methods of painting.
  • Interactive media have changed our ideas of the image into one of a multi-sensory interactive space of experience with a time frame.
  • In a virtual space, the parameters of time and space can be modified at will, allowing the space to be used for modeling experiment.
  • The possibility to access such spaces and communication worldwide via data networks, together with the technique of tele-space, opens up a range of options.

Historic Spaces of Illusion

  • Through the device of seeming to extend the wall surface beyond a single plane, the room appears larger than its actual size and draws the visitor’s gaze into the painting, blurring distinctions between real space and image space.
  • The most effective examples of these frescos use motifs that address the observer from all sides in a unity of time and place, enclosing him or her hermetically.
  • This creates the illusion of being in the picture, inside an image space and its illusionary events.
  • The overall effect is the break down the barriers between the observer and what is happening in the images on the walls. This is accomplished by a suggestive appeal to the observer from all sides that untilise illusionism techniques.
  • The positioning of a illusionist fresco, is partly staggered, on a podium painted in perspective approximately one meter from its base on the floor, contributes to the optical effect of a relief, and this depth.
  • The most important effect of all is its totality; it is an image space that addresses the observer from all sides: ‘The visitor to the chamber falls under the spell of the gaze directed at him from all areas, which rivets him for as long as he remains in the room’.
  • Illusionistic painting techniques create an artificial space into which the observer is “integrated”.
  • Completely filling the field of vision, there is no possibility for the observer to compare extraneous objects the scene, which might revitalize the impression made by the picture.
  • The observer confronts a simultaneous image that envelops panoramically and transports them to another space.
  • Frescos are remarkable because they surround the observer entirely and almost completely occupy the field of vision.
  • Although the murals begin at around 1.20m from the floor, the room can be classified as space of illusion because of the effect created by its 360-degree design, and most important, the fact that there are no framing elements, neither painted not architectonic.
  • Fifteenth century Italian masters opened up the depth of space though their mastery of perspective, translated into the metaphor of the window- a window that opens up into a different reality.
  • With the aid of the visual technique of perspective, strategies of immersion receive a tremendous boost, for they allowed the artist to portray convincingly much that formally was alluded to.
  • The Renaissance discovery of perspectiva artificialis introduced distance and breaks in perception, whereas previously it had been directly oriented on the representational nature of objects.
  • However, perspective is not an expression of natural vision; it is a technical construction and, what it presents to the perception follows specific conventions.
  • Distance between the observer and the object viewed is removed through ubiquitous mathematical analysis of the structure of image space, the totality of its politics of suggestion and strategy of immersion.
  • To achieve rational interior design, the new art of perspective was obliged to impose sever limitations.
  • The physiological space perceive by the observer is spheroid, a result of the permeant movement of the eyes, had to be abstracted to a flat linear perspective construction.
  • The combination of illusionistic fresco and three- dimensional sculptures, which the observer views in close proximity, endows a scene with an immersive presence that draws the observer into the scene.
  • When the visitor moves, perspectival perception of the work changes accordingly.
  • The interplay of representation of heaven (baroque ceiling paintings), which takes in the entire building and penetrates the interior by the way of windows, creates an effect that represents a new facet in strategic immersion: pictorial space at different distances from the observer.
  • As a tool of visual perception, the camera obscura was the result of a long process of scientific discovery and development.
  • The panorama installs the observer in the picture.
  • The representation of nature in the service of an illusion, was from the beginning the core idea of the panorama.
  • Both the illusionistic landscape room and the panorama surround the observer with pictorial images and both seek to create the effect of actually being in a real landscape.
  • With its suite of innovations in presenting images, the panorama was able to heighten the illusion considerably and more lastingly, compared with the illusionistic landscape room.

New York City AP1

November 2018

My trip to NCY in November heavily influenced the direction my practice took, mainly switching from the microscopic to experiencing a macro life of a big city. I became face to face with bright and enticing light shows, everywhere you look. The endless busy-ness of the streets significantly emphasised the dominating effect of having a multitude of bright lights and advertising screens on a persons interpretation of space.

Barnett Newman – Vir Heroicus Sublimis
Claude Monet – Water Lilles (Panorama)

David Reed AP1

In the 1970s, David Reed began making paintings with strokes directly brushed wet–into–wet across door–size canvases, measuring about fifty–five inches wide and seventy–six inches high. Each stroke was the length of Reed’s reach from a single standing position. These paintings are quite literal, measuring the dimensions and capabilities of Reed’s body, tracing the touch of his brush and its passage across the canvas. Drips attest to gravity and the fluidity of the oil paint. Like many post–war art works, they appear to aim at an extreme of matter–of–factness.

#543-3, 2004-2006/ 2010 2013
26 x 52 inches
Oil and alkyd on polyester
#636, 2010-2013
28 x 50 inches
Oil and alkyd on polyester
#645 E, 2014-2015
17 3/4 inches x73 3/4 inches x 1 1/2 inches 
acrylic and alkyd on polyester

The combination of paint and body determined the painting, makes the rules and prescribes its dimensions and its look. Frank Stella famously made his black paintings of the late 50s and early to mid–60s so that the interior of the painting sympathized with the exterior. Critic Michael Fried called this “deductive reasoning,” in that one could deduce what a painting would look like simply from the shape and dimensions of the canvas. The interior lines and shapes traced and echoed this larger form. Inverting Stella’s concept, Reed cut his canvas to fit the painting he knew he wanted to make, a painting that not incidentally was itself determined by his body’s physical facts, the length of his arm and brush, and its reach.

These paintings mark real time as much as real space: the brush moves, time passes. But even at this most basic level, something interrupts. Most obviously, these paintings are often put together of several vertical panels, each about eleven inches wide. The seams interrupt the works at about the position that Reed had noticed his earliest abstractions naturally breaking up, their all–over compositions falling apart. He took a gesture that began as an organic habit of his hand, analyzed it, and made it a condition of the painting — turning tendency into necessity. And, as Reed has himself noted, no matter how directly he worked, illusionism crept in: gravity made the wet paint drip, which inevitably created spatial depth.

#600-3, 2006-2009/ 2012-2013
36 x 144 inches
Oil and alkyd on linen
#615, 2000-2011
40 x 140 inches
Oil and alkyd on polyester
102 x 18 inches
Oil and alkyd on polyester
#150, 1979
56 x 112 inches (two panels)
Acrylic on Canvas
Private collection, U.S.
#90, 1975
76 x 56 inches
Collection Guggenheim Museum
Test Piece No.1
Test Piece No.2
Test Piece No.3
Test Piece No.4
Test Piece No.5
Test Piece No.6
Sketchbook Pages containing mini tests
Test Piece No.7
Test Piece No.8
Test Piece No.9
Test Piece No.10

Liquid Crystal AP1

September-October 2018

Gustav Metzger: Liquid Crystal Environment ( 1965/ remade 2005)

Liquid Crystal Environment (1965/2005)
Liquid Crystal Environment (1965/2005)

Esther Leslie: Liquid Crystal

  • There is an old image of liquid crystal, it is an image of liquid turned crystal and crystal amid liquid.
  • It is known as ‘Sea of Ice’ by Capser David Freidrich (1823-4) and it depicts to the polar sea found in the outermost North.
  • The Sea of Ice depicts expanses of ice amid seawater frozen under a frozen sky. Above the horizon there is only the tiniest hint of warmth.
  • Depicted here is natures ability and power to crush. Nature is the agent in this scene and the tiny human is its object, is fatality is unrepresented in this scene.
  • The Sea of Ice provides no dramatic visions of boiling, raging sea, of lightning flashes, howling storms of sudden avalanches.
  • The image shows a scene that is frozen and still, an image of an afterwards, a drama completed.
  • It appears to be a silent scene, because of the implied immobility of the frozen ice, those huge blocks of solid water stuck in what seems to be another time and space, one without motion or sound- though polar ice reacting to changes in temperature may, in fact, creak, screech, howl and whine and matter is never still.
  • Time’s liquidity is stilled. Specific location is replaced by a crystallization of space and the shelf (pg 10.)
  • The vagueness of place suggests the horrid insight that at all times, and in all places, nature opposes and wrecks us.
  • Perhaps the image represents, in oblique form, a sense of the earth as a place of interplay between the liquid and the crystalline (pg 11).
  • The earth is both crystal and water, a liquid crystal: ‘The earth is the crystal which discharges its superfluous water. Here the liquid and the crystal, the sea and the ice enact drama between themselves- the humans its victims or mere observers.
  • As humans, what se wee, or imagine is the consumption of everything by emptiness, void time and space, in the abstract.
  • There is an abstraction of live into a cold token, the metal or money. Money is liquid and crystal all at one. It is something that circulates, its fluid, mobile a flowing lubricant that makes life slippery, it greases the relations that are structured by it.
  • The liquid crystal ball that is the earth is ever changing, ever moving between its liquid and crystal forms, metaphors and dreams.
  • The form that is Freidrich’s canvas, with its coolly objective modernity and perfect fantasy of concocted reality, reappears in the contemporary technology of the liquid crystal display screen- and, standing before the oil painting, the viewer may be struck by the fact that its dimensions and framing resemble nothing so much as a 32 flat screen TV.
  • The painting resembles a kitsch-sublime display image on and LCD TV or frame from a digitally post-processed movie- though this latter image is an image not of but in liquid crystals.
  • This is the potential of liquid crystal, glimpsed in a liquid crystal screen (pg 19).
  • Our recent histories have involved a mingling of the liquid and the crystal, or an oscillation between the two phases, or a melting and hardening of one into the other.
  • It can be said that liquid crystals are dialectical from of nature or in nature, possessing contradictory qualities at one and the same. What is liquid cannot be crystal, what is crystal cannot be liquid.
  • Water is a liquid crystal; we encounter it often in the form of fluid or ice.
  • The state of liquid crystallinity was discovered in the ninetieth century, though it has always existed.
  • It joins our world of concepts and initiates immense social change, as it eventually makes possible a world built up of screens, communicating devices, gauges, watches, calculators, controls panels and so on.
  • The polar pulls between liquid and crystalline states threaten to flatten out in the age of the flat screen.
  • The cage lined with spectacular screen threatens to seal up, as we are never disconnected.
  • We live within the flatness of our devices and image thereby that we live.
  • Linear polarized light vibrates in one plane only and this means that liquid crystals create prismatic dazzling patterns when viewed between crossed polarized filters.
  • Liquid crystal is a transition state.
  • The liquid crystal phase only exists for a few minutes on the transition from hot to cold or vice versa.
  • At the moment that liquid crystallinity occurs, colours and shapes flash into view, like an abstract film.
  • Crystals seduce: they are beautiful, glinting, attractive, and they are animated.
  • Wilson Bentley (1885): by his time photography had come to be better known as a mediator of more everyday visions.
    • It was increasingly associated with multiplication, reproduction and recording of the mundane.
    • Bentley’s practice holds onto the twin aspects of photography as magical and scientific, in the context of a normalization of photography.
    • His work represents an image of contradictory nature: photography, a mechanical form of image production, bore implications for the shaping of concepts within art understanding. 
    • Each print from the negative was only as ‘original’ as the next or one before it.
  • The smallest particle is amplified and makes a representation, a small image world in itself, particular, unique, complex and intimate.
  • MICROPHOTOGRAPHY– is a replication, repetitive technology that evinces heterogeneity and disparateness of nature displayed to the eye as curiosity.
  • Photography presents to consciousness ‘the images of the stock of nature disintegrated into its elements’.
  • They have lost their original order, their space and time.
  • The image becomes ‘provisional, but also loosens nature from inevitability and hints at possible other arrangements.
  • Under polarized light, liquid crystals resemble shattered rainbows, swirling seas of dye, dazzling jewels come to life.
  • These droplets appear as if alive, for they move, under their own power.
  • These substances, when cold (or starved of energy) are rigid and their particles are arranged in regular patterns.
  • In this state, forces hold the particles together, there is the smallest amount of movement: the substance is crystal.
  • A crystal consists of layers composed of particles, where each has allotted place and the molecules in neighbouring layers slot into each other’s gaps, forming a lattice.
  • If the same substance is heated, the crystal lattice melts, the neighbouring areas of mesh disperse.
  • The molecules scatter in different directions, though each remains on its layer.
  • The substances retain something of its crystalline structure, but at the same time the molecules slide around more or less fluidly.
  • In such a state, the substance possesses at the same time, the properties of being both liquid and crystal.
  • Towards the end of the 20th Century, liquid crystals, which had been discovered and presented through lenses of optical technologies: the microscope and the camera.
  • As their properties were harnessed for media, liquid crystals left the laboratory and became technical objects.
  • Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company (1936)
    • A layer of liquid crystal was proposed as a shutter or light valve in a film projector or television set.
  • James Fergason (1963)
    • ‘Thermal Imaging Devices Utilizing a Cholesteric Liquid Crystalline Phase Material’.
    • The cholesteric phase indicated groups of rod-like molecules in layers, with each thin layer twisted a few degrees in relation to the one below.
    • The proposed devices include a thermally sensitive material that was able to convert heat into visible pattern of various colours.
    • In its many applications, it was able to give a visual indication of the temperature of an object (high temperature utensils).
  • George Heilmeier (1964)
    • He combines liquid crystals with pleochoric dye.
    • Subjecting this compound, sandwiched between glass slides, effected colour changed under polarized light, as the dye molecules rotated.
    • Patterning conductive coatings on the glass and insulating some areas, he was able to produce images, although these were immobile- but these hosts and dyes were unstable.
  • Life Magazine (1968)
    • Showcased how liquid crystals might screen the body.
    • Photographs of a woman’s bare flesh coated with liquid crystal paint showed swirls of dramatic blue, green, brown, red and black, the colours indicative of the body heat that correlated with changes in blood flow.
  • Hans Kelker and Bruno Scheurle (1969)
    • Isolated the compound MMBA (Mrthoxybenzylindene and Butylaniline) which had a low solidification point, making it possible to use liquid crystal in devices that needed to work at room temp.
  • Liquid Crystals invaded human life, watches clasped onto wrists, liquid crystals harnesses to tasks of measurements and calculation.
  • Liquid crystals turned in this period, following WW2 from being visioned, through the microscope, to becoming part of the visual field.
  • Liquid crystals pointed to a future.
  • Televisions became the most visible part of liquid crystal technology, taking the initials of the name into their name: LCD TV.
    • One five-thousandth of a millimeter of liquid crystal is placed between glass plates, coated with an indium tin oxide conductive layer.
  • On its flatness, though the power of electricity, liquid crystal began dance and so produce ever more animate and colorful forms.
  • Sandwiched in cells between crosses polarizing film on glass and backed by a mirror and a form of lamination, the liquid crystals align themselves with electric fields, twisting and untwisting this was and that, in response to voltage stimulus and withdrawal.
  • The liquid crystal is harnessed within the screen: is vivid and shifting colours and animated swirls that display on the screen.
  • The liquid crystal display does not only display liquid crystals behavior, the pre-digital technology of film displayed liquid crystals going about their free liquid crystal behaviors.
  • Jean Painlevé (1978)
    • A six-minute film of liquid crystals continually shifting, agitating, changing colour from black to vibrant greens and reds and pinks.
    • Animated forms, they figure, refigure and sparkle with changing colours.
  • Liquid Crystals seem alive, they screen life. Life is screened on them, they come to life as they project scenes of life.
  • They are themselves a form of animation; their molecules assume the ability to transform themselves into a state that was considered impossible, just pure animation.
  • Animation, in its various formats as stop-motion and CGI has been about stopping and starting, about stillness impelled to life.
  • Animation is and always has been the mixture of the petrified, the still, coaxed into restless, movement.
  • Life comes about technically- as a product of electricity.
  • All animation is just a shudder, a jerking generated, by the imputing of electricity.
  • Screens themselves collaborate in this animating, through liquidity and crystallization.
  • Where the liquid and the crystal were the thematic matter of the artistic and painterly sublime in Romanticism- now liquid crystals have become the technical matter of a new faux-sublime, a commodity sublime, conveyed by a digital machine.
  • The luminance of the screen bathes us, we are in liquid worlds.
  • Much contemporary viewing produce their images through electrical charges that switch pixels, dots of liquid crystal, on and off.
  • Tiny pixels shift between on and off states.
  • In the LCD screen, it is the time it takes to make a transition from darkness to brightness to darkness in the image.
  • This speed is not perceivable by the human eye until the mechanism begins to fail.
  • The photograph is a moment snatched out of time, film is the stringing together of stilled moments of flowing time, then LCD screens today embed time and refute time.
  • It can be frozen at any moment and held still like a photograph, it can flow leaving no traces.
  • Liquid crystal displays compel into action the binary painting of fluidity and solidification, liquid and crystal.
  • The screens or their liquid crystal elements, participate in animation.
  • The divide between humans and nature is reinforced thematically and made possible through an unconscious technics- visages in the dramatic and hyperreal rendering of a cruel nature crushing human endeavor, such that it may not recover from the inconvenient truth.
  • Liquid crystal became the matter of the screen, its modulator, and as liquid crystal scenarios, it is the matter on the screen.
  • This sublime digital models, texture –maps, composites and renders a heightened recognizable world.
  • A moment is arrested as multiple stills, cameras encircling an object simultaneously click through 360 degrees.
  • Transferred to a computer, these images are stringed sequentially, rendering a still object animated or stretching out a single moment temporarily, packing more time into time itself as it turns spatial.
  • In watching frozen time, viewers appear to be moved around an object frozen in its instant.
  • The frozen and the fluid are brought into sudden proximity, such prolongations of time find perfect mechanism in the sharply crystalline yet fluid responsiveness of the LCD screen.
  • Frozen time technologies stretch out a single moment in order to gain further knowledge of it or something represented, through an enforced period of reflection.
  • It induces, in its synthetic confection and experience of wonder, the sensation of a digital sublimity, a sublime transcendence, as the audience is lifted from the moment or allocated an impossible temporality.
  • In this instance, the fluid is frozen by the machinery, as time is stretched, but some type of fluidity is transferred to the viewer in the form of the experience of flight, a lifting up and spinning around, to see things from the perspective of the sublime.
  • The freezing of movement and time finds it polar opposite in another prevalent computerized image practice.
    • A technical way in which animation finds a place nowadays in image manipulation software: as for example, iMovie, Photoshop etc.
  • That animating techniques are developed to counter to numb stillness of the archive suggests that we are not supposed to face the past in all its frozen closedness.
  • This process is on par with the colorization of black and white movies or desperate search for colour film in the historical archive as this were more real, more realistic, than black and white footage.
  • The screen has the capacity to bridge worlds- not least the everyday world, the domestic space of ordinary life and leisure and the art world, the gallery space of fine art.
  • These two are united in screen who’s very being is enmeshed with mobility, the agility of the images that dance across it in crystalline clarity, but also the mobility of the screen, a screen that can travel the globe.
  • The power of digital manipulation can erase the differences between distant times, spaces and traditions.
  • An image on a screen is constructed out of fragments and does not quite match up to a living, breathing whole.
    • It inheres something odd in the virtual reality, something hyper-real.
  • Film’s original configuration is stillness-whirred into movement by the energy of the projector.
  • The details caught in photographs by the camera’s optical unconscious are made available to vision through the coincidence of chance- that they were there and needed not be seen by the human eye.
  • Animation is introduced where stillness was, and stillness where the animated traces of life once were.
  • Film is broken down into frames for computer processing, its movements are arrested in order that semblance of life be impelled on the past.
  • To animate photography with the illusion of movement is not to analyze but to produce a pseudo-experience- as if giving you more knowledge.
  • To imitate nature means further to produce the illusion of presence, of something that exceeds the flatness of the screen, does not reach back into the depths of the image’s perspective.
  • There is a drive from imitation, and painting is not immune to this drive, but the qualities that ever more convincingly make an illusion of the real seem to be properties of the non-painted.
  • Even colour is presented in the moving technical arts, for by far the majority of early films were highly colored, by tinting and toning and experimental procedures.
Esther Leslie: Liquid Crystal
Esther Leslie: Liquid Crystal
Esther Leslie: Liquid Crystal
Esther Leslie: Liquid Crystal
Esther Leslie: Liquid Crystal
Esther Leslie: Liquid Crystal

Benjamin Outram: Liquid Crystal Under a Microscope

Benjamin Outram: Liquid Crystal
Benjamin Outram: Liquid Crystal
Benjamin Outram: Liquid Crystal
Benjamin Outram: Liquid Crystal
Benjamin Outram: Liquid Crystal
Benjamin Outram: Liquid Crystal
Benjamin Outram: Liquid Crystal
Benjamin Outram: Liquid Crystal
Benjamin Outram: Liquid Crystal
Benjamin Outram: Liquid Crystal
Benjamin Outram: Liquid Crystal
Benjamin Outram: Liquid Crystal
Benjamin Outram: Liquid Crystal
Liquid Crystal (My Own Imagery)
Liquid Crystal (My Own Imagery)
Liquid Crystal (My Own Imagery)
Liquid Crystal (My Own Imagery)
Liquid Crystal (My Own Imagery)
Liquid Crystal (My Own Imagery)
Liquid Crystal (My Own Imagery)
Liquid Crystal (My Own Imagery)
Liquid Crystal (My Own Imagery)
Liquid Crystal (My Own Imagery)
Liquid Crystal (My Own Imagery)
Liquid Crystal (My Own Imagery)
Liquid Crystal (My Own Imagery)
Liquid Crystal (My Own Imagery)
Liquid Crystal (My Own Imagery)
Liquid Crystal (My Own Imagery)
Liquid Crystal (My Own Imagery)
Liquid Crystal (My Own Imagery)
Liquid Crystal (My Own Imagery)
Heated Liquid Crystal (My Own Imagary)
Liquid Crystal Filming Process (My Own Imagery)
Liquid Crystal Filming Process (My Own Imagery)
Liquid Crystal Filming Process (My Own Imagery)
Liquid Crystal Filming Process(My Own Imagery)